5 de dezembro de 2011
15 de outubro de 2011
1 de setembro de 2011
GroethuysenA Causa da incredulidade do burguês deve procurar-se precisamente na discordância entre a vida cristã a vida burguesa, entre o homem velho e o homem novo.Como há-de acreditar ainda em mistérios, em lendas, em milagres, se todo o seu esforço deve tender para eliminar tudo o que houver de irracional na sua vida? Como há-de admitir ainda a Divina Providência e convencer-se de que a vontade de Deus regula tudo, se a confiança nas suas próprias forças e a previsão raciocinada constituem os motivos em que se inspiram todos os seus juízos.
29 de agosto de 2011
Sustenta Belloc que nunca ocorreu uma queda, uma desaparição no sentido literal da palavra, do Império Romano; este último, ao invés, a partir do século V, com o enfraquecimento dos laços centralizadores que uniam administrativamente as diferentes províncias imperiais a Roma, transmutou-se num conjunto de unidades politicamente independentes entre si, porém espiritualmente ligadas a Roma, já não pelo poder militar das legiões, mas pelo elo religioso nelas infundido pela Igreja Católica. E sob o influxo desta última, a Europa conseguirá superar o período obscuro e turbulento que se seguiu à desaparição do poder imperial romano e, a partir do século XI, guindar-se-á a uma nova época de dois séculos, que conhecerá o seu zénite coma Cristandade do século XIII - a Cristandade onde viveu São Tomás de Aquino -, em que mais do que nunca fará sentido o lema tão caro a Belloc: “a Europa é a Fé, e a Fé é a Europa!”
Com o dealbar do século XIV, e por causa daqueles que voluntária ou involuntariamente colaboram com as forças que imprimem um sentido anticristão à História, iniciar-se-á a erosão da Cristandade medieval, que culminará com a brutal ruptura da unidade espiritual europeia provocada pela reforma protestante do século XVI, o primeiro de muitos abalos que a Europa sofrerá na sua essência. Daqui se abrirão as portas sucessivamente à idolatria do poder absoluto do Estado, ao iluminismo jacobino, à revolução francesa, ao liberalismo laico e ao capitalismo desregrado, ao socialismo ateu, à revolução russa e à guerra mundial (este livro foi originalmente lançado em 1920), autênticas antecâmaras da erecção na Europa do Estado Servil ou Tecnocrático animado por uma ideologia anticristã, jacobina e internacionalista, antítese última das ideias de Cristandade e Europa, pois, como Belloc sempre insiste, “a Europa é a Fé, e a Fé a Europa!"
Leitura recomendada, já que - como li algures - conhecer a História é ser-se católico.
P.S. Para além da edição em língua inglesa deste livro, da responsabilidade da “TAN”, existe também uma espanhola, “Europa y la Fe”, publicada pela “El Buey Mudo”.
P.P.S. Este artigo é publicado em simultâneo no blogue “A Casa de Sarto”.
25 de agosto de 2011
1 de julho de 2011
25 de junho de 2011
"Mas é no plano da ética que o processo de degradação é particularmente visível. Enquanto a primeira época se caracterizava pelo ideal da «virilidade espiritual», pela iniciação e pela ética da superação do vínculo humano; enquanto na época dos guerreiros ainda se fundavam no ideal do heroísmo, da vitória e do senhorio, na ética aristocrática da honra, da fidelidade e da cavalaria, na época dos mercadores o ideal torna-se a economia pura, o lucro, a prosperity e a ciência como instrumento de um progresso técnico-industrial ao serviço da produção e de novos lucros na «sociedade de consumo» — até que o advento dos servos eleva ao nível de uma religião o princípio do escravo: o trabalho. E o ódio do escravo vai até ao ponto de proclamar sadicamente: «Quem não trabalha não come», e a sua idiotice glorificando-se a si própria, fabrica incensos sagrados com as exalações do suor humano: «O trabalho eleva o homem», «A religião do trabalho», «O trabalho como dever social e ético», «O humanismo do trabalho»."
19 de junho de 2011
Let it be remembered that this aim of ours for the restoration of private property among a determining number of the community, the distribution of property among the masses of citizens who should thus be made free, does not contradict state ownership of certain functions. What it contradicts is the false doctrine of general or preponderant state ownership, or what is worst of all universal State ownership. The State exists for the family and the individual; not these for the State.In many European countries where highly divided property is the rule, railways are State owned, and in all without exception, the Post Office.There is no hard and fast line, but the general principle is clear enough. Any free and well ordered state includes a proportion of State ownership which is based upon private ownership in the hands of as many citizens and families as possible at any rate, of so many as to make the principle determining character of society. Such ownership may be co-operative in the form of the Guild where large units are necessary or as in the case of nearly all agriculture and a great deal of industry as well, owned in small units by craftsmen.The function of distribution should also follow the same lines. Where there must be concentration in a large unit, that unit should be organized as a Guild; but in the vast majority of cases a small unit of distribution—the small store—is sufficient.
14 de junho de 2011
10 de junho de 2011
29 de maio de 2011
People of all faiths, in spite of their doctrinal differences, have generally been encouraged when the Catholic Church takes a stand for religious belief. In a skeptical and materialistic age, the social encyclicals seem to garner the widest attention because everyone is interested in seeing how the Church will adjust to the trends of the modern world. However, it is arguable that there has never been a real surprise in any papal encyclical. The Pope simply affirms the truths the Church has always affirmed. The encyclicals are needed only because the world changes, not because the truth changes. The world needs to be refreshed by the truth. For instance, in 1968, the only surprise of Humane Vitae was that the Church was not going to give into the world. Lust is still wrong. Now, in 2009, the only surprise of Caritas in Veritate was that the Church was not going to give into the world. Greed is still wrong.
14 de maio de 2011
Human beings want to understand the discovered world only as material for their own creativity…. Gnosticism will not entrust itself to a world already created, but only to a world still to be created.
Previously human beings could only transform particular things in nature; nature as such was not the object but rather the presupposition of their activity. Now, however, it itself has been delivered over to them in toto. Yet as a result they suddenly see themselves imperiled as never before.
10 de maio de 2011
“The winner in all this,” I continued, “will be the Servile State: Hilaire Belloc’s label for a system where monopoly capitalists, financiers, and government bureaucrats merge into an entity practising state capitalism. Under its terms the capitalists and bankers gain order and protection of their wealth and property while property-less workers receive welfare benefits specifically tied to their wage labor, such as unemployment insurance, which provides security but also confirms their servile status. For his part, Chesterton called this arrangemnent a ‘Business Government’ which, he said, ‘will combine everything that is bad in all the plans for a better world…. There will be nothing left but a loathsome thing called Social Service.” The balance of my talk included examples of the Servile State at work in America, Russia, and China. It also explored the curious new subjegation of women found– most remarkably– in Scandinavia, where the Business Government has essentially socialized “women’s work”: “women find servility in their strange, new, functional marriage to the state.”
“Servile World: How ‘The Big Business Government,’ ‘The Loathsome Thing Called Social Service,’ and Other Distrubutist Nightmares All Came True
At a still more troubling level, there is evidence that shifts in federal housing policy were actually coming to favor family break-up. In brief, by 1970 most married-couple American families with children were in their own homes. To keep up housing demand, regulators subtly shifted mortgage subsidies away from intact traditional families toward “underserved,” “non-traditional,” “non-family” households: single persons; sole-mother households; unmarried couples; the divorced. In fact, two analysts showed that as early as 1980, the American population was “diffusing itself” into a still expanding housing supply; the number of housing units was growing at nearly twice the rate of population increase. Put more bluntly, the new availability of subsidized mortgages for the non-married actually appears to have encouraged divorce and other forms of modern post-family living. In a manner that Chesterton would have deplored, lawmakers and regulators had stripped American housing policy of normative content. No longer family-centric, with a special focus on the needs of children, it would now be “neutral” as to lifestyle. In practice, these changes blended the U.S. mortgage market together with certain emerging social pathologies and unstable speculation to create a precarious system: again, a problem already evident to some observers as early as 30 years ago. The wonder is that the contradictions in this system took nearly three decades to work themselves out as part of the current crisis.
8 de maio de 2011
6 de maio de 2011
E pela mesma razão ambos observam o Cristianismo como inimigo a ser conquistado e dominado pela vontade dos governantes, como se observa pelo cesaropapismo britânico fundamentado por Locke e pelas nacionalizações religiosas dos comunismos que se verificaram por esse mundo fora. Tanto o Comunismo como o Liberalismo têm perfeita consciência de que só sobrevivem numa sociedade de impulsos e desejos e em que toda a repressão é injustificada. Prazer e Dor, Desejo e Satisfação, são os elementos essenciais dessa sociedade suinizada de resposta a impulsos. Qualquer apelo à Virtude, à medida do Homem que proporciona acesso a bens não quantificáveis e qualitativos, é por isso banido por extra-subjectividade. O epíteto “fascista” deixou o significado original de movimento político de massas, para se dizer daquele que não acredita que o indivíduo-átomo é o destinatário final de toda a política. Qualquer pessoa que se recuse a aceitar que os laços humanos são mais importantes que uma individualidade possessiva, que não tem outra finalidade que não seja a total plasticidade do Homem para obter uma total submissão ao poder e ao tempo, quebra a grande premissa de Comunismo e Liberalismo: que devemos todos estar juntos (comunismo) ou separados (liberalismo) para que possamos no fim caber nessa orgia de auto-satisfação do ponto-ómega do Progresso ou da sociedade em que cada um vê satisfeitas as suas necessidades.
4 de maio de 2011
3 de maio de 2011
30 de abril de 2011
Inheritance TaxInheritance tax is another Keyensian method of wealth redistribution. It is based on the idea that a portion of the accumulated wealth of individuals needs to be redistributed through the government to those in greater need. It is, in my opinion, an excellent example of a society that takes a utilitarian view of its citizens. What else can explain the willingness to add to the grief of surviving relatives by making them pay for what they inherit from the one who died? Beyond that, there is not much difference between the inheritance tax and an income tax. The inheritance is treated as a special form of income and taxed at its own special rate.Property TaxThe main problem I have with property tax as it is implemented here in the United States is that it actually negates the principle of ownership. I say this because, regardless of what it may say on the deed of title, you can be evicted from what is supposed to be your property for failure to pay the tax. In what way is this different from the early feudal period where the landlord could kick out the tenants for failure to pay the required tax? I can see none. Despite the fact that we claim to own our property, we are in fact nothing more than tenants with more rights to the property than renters.Another problem with property taxes is that the government claims a revenue from that which it has not provided. John Médaille makes excellent points on the claim that a community can make on the value it has provided to the land, but the current practice of property taxes goes well beyond that. It also taxes the value provided by the individual or business as though the community has some natural claim to it. It is one thing to say that the presence of community has provided value to a piece of land and therefore the community can make a claim against that value; it is quite another thing to say that the community can make a claim against an increase value of your house on that land because you decided to improve it at your own expense.These problems are the reason I cannot support property taxes as they are currently implemented. With these defects in place, I would personally prefer the sales tax.
28 de abril de 2011
27 de abril de 2011
- The Well and the Shallows (1935).
26 de abril de 2011
The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. … Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned …
25 de abril de 2011
23 de abril de 2011
19 de abril de 2011
16 de abril de 2011
15 de abril de 2011
14 de abril de 2011
And it is their faith that the only ultimate thing is fear and therefore that the very heart of the world is evil. They believe that death is stronger than life, and therefore dead things must be stronger than living things; whether those dead things are gold and iron and machinery or rocks and rivers and forces of nature.
It fancies that money will fight when men will no longer fight. So it was with the Punic merchant princes. Their religion was a religion of despair, even when their practical fortunes were hopeful. How could they understand that the Romans could hope even when their fortunes were hope less? Their religion was a religion of force and fear; how could they understand that men can still despise fear even when they submit to force? Their philosophy of the world had weariness in its very heart; above all they were weary of warfare; how should they understand those who still wage war even when they are weary of it? In a word, how should they understand the mind of Man, who had so long bowed down before mindless things, money and brute force and gods who had the hearts of beasts?
and Carthage fell as nothing has fallen since Satan.
13 de abril de 2011
11 de abril de 2011
10 de abril de 2011
So it has been with the wage-worker. So long as most citizens owned land and instruments and house-room, and the rest, then it was a natural contract for one man to take wages from another. The wage worker might himself be an owner, adding to his income for the moment by a particular bit of work; or if he saved on his wages he could become an owner. The number of wage-workers working for one particular man was small. The relations between the citizen who paid the wage and the citizen who earned it was personal and human. But when, under the action of competition and the use of expensive and centralized machines, and rapid communication, you had thousands and thousands of men working at a wage under one paymaster or corporation, things were utterly changed—and that is where we stand today. Our industrial society has become divided into a very large body which lives wholly, or almost wholly, on wages, that is on food, clothing, and housing doled out to it at short intervals by a much smaller number of paymasters, who control capital: that is, stores and reserves of land, housing, clothing and food.
The human relation has disappeared, you have the naked contrast between an employing class exploiting a vastly larger employed class for profit. The interests of the two are directly hostile. The wage-worker is the enemy of the paymaster. It is the business of the paymaster to give the wage earner as little as possible, and to make him work as hard as possible for that little. It is the business of the wage-worker to work, and therefore to produce, as little as possible for as much as he can get out of the paymaster. The whole scheme of wealth production becomes irrational and topsy-turvy. The paymasters, who direct, do not aim at wealth production—which serves us all—but at their own profit. The wage-worker does not aim at wealth production by his work, but on the contrary, at working as little as possible for the largest pay.
Meanwhile, every sort of social abomination arises from this evil root. There is the spiritual abomination of what is called “Class Hatred.” The oppressed hating the oppressor. There is the corresponding spiritual abomination of contempt, injustice, and falsehood. The secure oppressor despises the wage-earner, does him the injustice of using his labor without thought if the wage-earner’s advantage or of the community, and he tells a falsehood that was a truth at the beginning of the affair but is now a lie: he says that all this is based on free contract and is therefore rightly enforced by the courts of law and the armed services of the community.